Front page.
                                                                                                        
Scalar Radio Wave

Table of Contents
Introduction,
Scalar Electromagnetic Transceiver Antennas,
Torroidal Transformer Version,
Scalar Electromagnetic Vector Algebra,
References.


Introduction
There was some information about a Tesla scalar wave also called scalar electromagnetic waves in writings from Thomas Beardon. The scalar wave if it exits is an electrogravitational wave produced by combining two opposing electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic energy or potential is send into the local gravity field instead because the electromagnetic fields polarities cancel, and is transmitted as an electrogravitational wave.

Scalar Electromagnetic Transceiver Antennas
Electromagnetic waves can be combined so that they are in superposition. Superposition means that the electromagnetic waves occupy the same position in space. When at superposition two electromagnetic waves or wave particles occupy the same position in space. The magnetic polarities of these two sinusoidal shaped waves are opposite in polarity. This cancels the electromagnetic field polarities. The resultant electromagnetic
signals becomes a weak conventional electromagnetic signal; the electromagnetic signals or waves cancel each other. We can make a superposition of electromagnetic waves by transmitting two radio signals  from two separate loop antennas. The loop or coil radio antennas are placed in close proximity to each other as shown in figure 1. The antennas are nearly identical in shape and they are identified in the figure 1 as loop antennas a and b.
In the figure 1 we see the electromagnetic signal amplitude 4 from antenna a and electromagnetic signal 5 from from transmitter antenna loop b. These transmitter loops a and b form a scalar electromagnetic wave transmitter.

                  Transmitter Antennas
Scalared Electromagnetic Waves Transmitter
                      Figure 1.

The electromagnetic signals 4 and 5 from the coils cancel each other or nearly cancel reach other and produce the weaker resultant wave form 6. This very weak signal 6 can be detected by a conventional loop antenna r. The scalared radio wave amplitudes 4 and 6 cannot be detect completely by such a single loop coil r. A scalar electromagnetic wave receiver antenna system can detect such scalar waves
like 4 and 5. The l4 is the length of the copper wire of coil 4 and l5 is the length of the wire of coil 5. A scalar radio wave receiver antenna also consists of two loop antennas c and d in figure 1b. The scalar electromagnetic wave transmitter is identical in shape as the scalar electromagnetic wave transmitter loops a and b. The scalar electromagnetic wave receiver can detect or unsuperposition scalared electromagnetic waves. The receiver antennas and its phase shifter circuits Li and Ci seem to be able to separate the scalared electromagnetic waves emitted by transmitter antennas a and b in figure 1.

   Scalar Electromagnetic Wave receiver Antennas
   Figure 1b.

The scalar wave receiver antenna could detect the scalared waves but the conventional
single loop antenna like r could not detect much electromagnetic signal.
To scalar the original electromagnetic waves the transmitter antenna system a and b needed an electric phase shifter circuit made of inductance L and capacitance C. Figure 2 shows the electronic schematic drawings of the antennas and their corresponding electric circuits and signal currents I4 and I5.

 Antenna Circuits and Currents


  Figure 2.

The phase shifter circuit values L and C insure that the electric sinusoidal wave form or sine wave current I5 from the electric signal generator G which goes to loop b has the required phase phase or phase angle relative to the peak of signal current I4. Electric current I4 goes to transmitter loop a. There are equations to help calculate
this phase angle between the peak values of currents I4 and I5.
The values to calculate phase angle   are the distance d between the loop antennas  a and b, the electric sine wave frequency f, and the speed of light c of the electromagnetic waves. The equations are: w=c/f, (1);  =[360 (dw)] 180=xq, (2).
With these equations we first shift currents I4 and I5 by a 180 degrees=q. Then we use the wavelength w of the electromagnetic wave and the distance d=h to get the remaining part of the phase angle .  The first term
x=360 (dw) in equation (2) is used to calculate and estimate the required values for L and C. The electric phase shifter inductance L and capacitance C are determined by the distance h between transmitter antennas a and b and the electric signal current frequency f.

  Demonstration Video 1. Scalared Electromagnetic Waves Transceiver:
   http://www.machines-x.info/scalarwaves/ .WMV, file size: kilobytes.

  This type of scalar electromagnetic wave may perhaps be a virtual photon wave. A virtual photon a component of a virtual photon wave may be a five dimensional particle that is about to become a real conventional photon. A virtual photon wave may perhaps produce virtual electrons of virtual electronic current IRv. IRv=I6-I7. A virtual photon cannot be detected with ordinary single coil antenna r. By using two antennas c and d that un-scalar the scalar electromagnetic wave, the virtual photons are released into the local three dimensional space-time of the antennas c and d. ||IRv||=|I6|≈0.1 ampere-peak. Signal voltage Vs from generator G is Vs≈1.0 volt-peak. Signal source G internal impedance Rs=50 ohms.


Scalar Electromagnetic Vector Algebra

At The Transmitter Antennas
Input current magnitudes: I4=||I4||=(||Ix4||2+||Iy4||2+||Iz4||2)1/2,
I5=||I5||=(||Ix5||2+||Iy5||2+||Iz5||2)1/2.
Virtual electronic current in transmitter antennas a and b is:
ITv=(ITvx, ITvy, ITvz, ITvt, I TvU),
with fourth dimensional component ITvt and with fifth dimensional component ITvU of ITv along the t-axis and U-axis respectively of a five dimensional cartesian coordinate system.
Input current vectors into antenna seperatly:
I4=(Ix4, Iy4, Iz4), I5=(Ix5, I y5, Iz5),
I4+I5=(Ix4+Ix5, Iy4+Iy5, Iz4+Iz5),
where current vector component Ix4 is parallel or along the x-axis of a cartesian coordinate system, Iy4 is along the y-axis and Iz4 along the z-axis.
The speculative linear transformation of electrical currents from n=3-space to n=5-space in transmitter antennas a and b is:
T:R3→R5I4+I 5→ T(I 4+I5)=I Tv=(ITvt, ITvU);
for examples: vector components Ix4=0.1 ampere-peak →, I y4=10-13 ampere-peak ↓, Iz4=10-13 ampere-peak, I x5=-0.1 ampere-peak →, I y5=-10-13 ampere-peak ↓, I z5=-10-13 ampere-peak, ITvU=0.2 ampere-peak, ITvt=-10-23 ampere-peak, ITvx=10-5 ampere-peak →, ITvy=10-5 ampere-peak  ↓, and ITvz=10-5 ampere-peak.
Scalar wave or virtual photon field intensity or number of virtual electrons is:
kTv=u o(l4+l 5)ITv.
Electromagnetic permeability of the local three dimensional vacuum space-time is uo=4π 10-7 tesla/ampere2. Summing two opposing eletromagnetic field intensities: Ba+B b+s=G. Where vector B a is electromagnetic field intensity in coil "a" centre, B b is electromagnetic field intensity of coil b centre and vector G is the local gravitational field potential at B a and B b location. Imaginary examples: B a=0.001 tesla, Bb=-0.001 tesla, G=0.0000001 newton metre2/kilogram2, scalar electromagnetic potential s=1 metre/metre.

At The Receiver Antennas
Electrical current magnitydes from receiver antennas c and d alone respectively are:
I6=||I6||=(||Ix6||2+||Iy6||2+||Iz6||2)1/2,
I7=||I7||=(||Ix7||2+||Iy7||2+||Iz7||2)1/2.
Virtual photon field intensity in receiver antennas c and d is:
kRv=k Tvd2=u o(l4+l 5)ITvd 2,
where d is the physical distance betwen the scalar wave transmitter and receiver antennas sets. Number of irtual photons at receiver antennas c and d is:
kRv=u o(l6+l 7)IRv.
Virtual electronic current in receiver antennas c and d is:
IRv=(IRvx, I Rvy, IRvz, I Rvt, IRvU).
Output current vectors from antennas c and d separately:
I6=(Ix6, Iy6, Iz6), I7=(Ix7, Iy7, Iz7).
Then the speculative linear transformation of electrical currents from n=5-space to n=3-space at receiver antennas c and d is:
T:R5→R3I Rv=(IRvt,IRvU)→ T(IRvt, IRvU)=I 6+I7,
where
I Rv is virtual electronic curents in receiver antennas c and d;
for examples: vector components Ix6=0.1 ampere-peak →, I y6=10-13 ampere-peak ↓, Iz6=10-13 ampere-peak, I x7=-0.1 ampere-peak →, I y7=-10-13 ampere-peak ↓, I z7=-10-13 ampere-peak, IRvU=0.2 ampere-peak, IRvt=-10-23 ampere-peak,

I
Rvx=10-5 ampere-peak →, IRvy=10-5 ampere-peak  ↓, IRvz=10-5 ampere-peak. Examples: d=0.08 metre, π=3.141592654, l 4=l5=l 6=l7≈4 metres.
Virtual photon wave pseudo energy in 5-space is:
cE=(E, E Tvt, ETvU)=hfk Tv,
with real energy E≈10-10 joule, Planck's number h=6.626075510-34 joule second. Examples: E Tvt≈10-10 joule, ETvU≈1.0 joule, f=3.106 cycles per second,

k
Rv≈51024 photons.


Conclusion


References

 

November 21, 2003.