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**Electromagnetic Field Propagation Velocity
**

Introduction

Electric Wave Phase Velocity

Simultaneous Boolean Expressions With Signal Return Loops

Introduction

Attempts have been made to measure the electromagnetic field velocity v. The electromagnetic field velocity v can be defined as the distance d an electromagnetic field travels in a given amount of time t. The electromagnetic field velocity v can be defined as:

v=d÷t (1)

The distance d can be the distance between a electromagnetic field transmitter antenna and a receiver antenna. Figure 1 shows the antennas separated by the distance d. This figure shows the experiment design for measuring the electromagnetic field velocity v. It shows the transmitter coil 2 with the electronic transmitter part 3 which supply the electric signal to the transmitter antenna 2, receiver antenna coil 4. The electromagnetic radio signal is transmitted to an electronic oscilloscope 5 via a coaxial electric transmission line 6.

Electromagnetic Field Experiment Design

Figure 1.

The electromagnetic field from the transmitter antenna 2 induces an electric signal voltage V

V

Figure 2a. Figure 2b.

Figure 2a shows the voltages V

v=(d

The figures show that the time difference t

Demonstration Video 1. Phase Angle ø Between Radio Signals While

Varying Transmitter's Distance d:

http:// /.WMV, file size: kilobytes, (not available yet).

Figure 3(a) shows Heinrich Hertz's experiment design for measuring the velocity of radio waves. It consists of transmitter antenna plates 2 and 3. Electric current is supplied to this antenna by an electrical transformer 4. A third metal plate 5 taps radio energy from antennas 2 and 3 for the antenna wire 6. Coil antennas 7 or 8 can be used to detect the radio wave energy from wire antenna 6 and and plates 2 and 3.

Heinrich Hertz's
Radio Wave Velocity Measuring Device

Figure 3.

The electric current in the antenna wire 6 was assumed to have a
finite propagation velocity v<c. The air radio waves from plates 2 and 3 was
assumed to have a finite speed c=3.00×10^{8} metres per second or an
instantaneous velocity. This instantaneous velocity of radio fields was called
action-at-a-distance. If the radio waves in the air and the wire 6 have finite
traveling velocities, constructing and destructive interference along the wire
6 length x could be detected. Figure 3(b) shows the wave interferences for
radio air waves with a finite velocity c. The electric wave and air radio wave
with a finite travelling speed would produce a standing wave. Where the waves
produce destructive interference the radio wave amplitudes will cancel each
other out and a minimum amount of radio wave energy could be detect by antenna
4 or 5 at location x_{3}. Antennas 4 and 5 are coil antennas that have
their lengths interrupted by spark gaps. Electric sparks between these spark
gaps indicates the strength of the receive radio waves. If there was
constructive interference of radio waves, the antenna 4 or 5 would detect a
maximum radio wave energy at another location x_{2} as shown in figure
3(b). If the air radio waves velocity or electric voltage induction in antenna
4 or 5 was instantaneous, the amplitude of the radio waves from the wire
antenna 6 would be steady along the wire 6 length x as shown in fiugre 3(c).
Initially Heinrich Hertz obtained measurements that supported radio wave
propagation that has an instantaneous velocity or action-at-a-distance. After
more experiments, he found evidence of a finite radio air wave velocity.
Action-at-a-distance is the effect that when alterating the orientation of a
photon wave, the counter part photon at another location reacts by changing its
wave orientation also. The experiment of figure 2 may be able to detect both
types of velocities of radio air waves. The large superluminal velocity v>c
may be allowed if electromagetic fields are four or five dimensional in nature.
The electromagnetic field may have three dimensions x, y and z in a cartesian
coordinate system of three dimensional space-time. The electromagnetic field
may also have a four dimensional component t of time. Superstring theory has a
10 dimensional space-time model or mathematics. An electromagnetic field may
perhaps be made of magnetic particles or photons. The electromagnetic particle
or photon of the radio wave may perhaps flow from the north pole N of an
electromagnet or coil, around the electromagnet and then into the south pole S
of the same electromagnet. An electromagnet field particle or photon centre
region may perhaps have a point P located in five dimensional space time
designated by the symbol P(x,y,z,t,U). Variable U may represent a parallel
three dimensional universe designation. U=1 universe is for our normal
universe, and U=-1 universe may represent a parallel anti-universe, mirror
universe, or antimatter universe. An anti-universe or mirror universe is the
same as our own universe except that the electric charges are reversed; a
negative electric charge behaves as a positive electric charge. A magnetic
north pole N of a magnet in the mirror anti-universe behaves as a magnetic
south pole S. This symbol P(x,y,z,t,U) may locate an electromagnetic particle
in the atmosphere at some time t. For example, distances x=6000000 metres ,
y=6100000 metres and z=7000000 metres may be relative to the centre of the
earth and axis of spin of earth. Time t=10^{-15} second for example may
be relative to the beginning of year 2005. Electricity or an electron may not
be just three dimensional, but may perhaps be six dimensional or capable
in existing in a local six dimensional space also. It has the three x, y and z
dimensions of the Cartsian coordinate system. It may have perhaps two time
dimension; normal time t and hypertime or fast time. It may have or be
in a sixth dimension or anti-matter dimension which may be a mirror image
parallel universe. An electron in a parallel anti-matter universe would be
called a positron that has a positive electric charge in the normal universe. A
positron is an electron from the anti-matter universe if this is true. This
hypertime dimension or local hyperspace enables electricity to escape the
time dilation affect of Albert Eistein's relativity theory. The time dilation
theory tells that the rate of time flow of a mass like an electron reduces
as its speed increases relative to the speed of light c in a vacuum.

The position and velocity v of an electromagnetic wave seem not to be
able to be measured at the same time. When the position of the wave is seen,
the velocity of the wave seemed undefined. There is a scientific idea or model
that says that the behaviour of an electromagnetic photon and even subatomic
particles like an electron depends partially on the measuring device used
to measure the photon. If one tries to determine the position of the
electromagnetic wave, one could not detect the velocity of the electromagnetic
wave at the same time. In one universe U= 2 the laws of reality may be slightly
different than the laws of another parallel universe U= 1 where the photon
travels at the speed of light c if this is so.

**Electric Wave Phase Velocity**

**
Instantaneous Radio Wave Travelling Speed and Hyper Electromagnetics
**When one tries to measure the travelling speed of an electrical
sinewave in a coaxial transmision cable with an electronic oscilloscope the
received and transmitted phase angle are in phase or the same. This would
indicate that radio waves can travel at an instantaneous speed is possible
that radio waves can travel in five dimensional speed-time as well in ordinary
three dimensional time. This may be possible when that during the travel of the
radio waves that many of its moments of time happens at the same time in
parallel universes or five dimensional space-time. If the mass of the particle
like the electron is small enough, with its travel speed fast enough and the
observation time

In digital electronics a binary 1 can be representd by a large signal
voltage V, while a binary 0 can be represented by a smaller electric voltage
such as 0.1 volt. The following boolean expressions (z) have some signal
feedback or return loops. The previous x values with subscript n become the
output in subscript n+1. This equation has no solutions using conventional
digital computers. The outputs in x_{3,n} are mainly logical 1, but
sometimes become logical binary bit 0. Boolean algebra expressions z:

inputs:

x_{1,n}=1,

(x_{1,n} v x_{2,n})v(x_{3,n} v x_{3,n})=x_{2,n+1},

x_{2,n} v x_{4,n}=x_{3,n+1},

~x_{2,n}=x_{4,n+1},

outputs: x_{3,n+1}.
(z)

The last x_{i,100}=x_{i,1} for i=2 to 4, and then the
calculations are repeated. The n=1 to 100, i=1 to 4. The x_{1,n}=1=V=10
volts at 0.1 watt, but the other x_{i,n} start at bit 0. Local
electromagnetic waves or fields may by four or five dimensional in nature. We
can detect electromagnetic waves in local three dimensional space-time, but
when the electromagnetic waves travel in a local four or five dimensional
space-time, it may not seem to travel at the speed of light c.

The title “
A Hyper Electromagnetics Model For Quasi Quantum Computers”
gives another electromagnetic model.

The velocity of the electron or photon in vacuum space is *v*_{e}=v
in *v*_{e}^{2}=1/(*e*_{o} *u*_{o}).
*e*_{o}=1/(*v*_{e}^{2} *u*_{o}).
Then the electrical capacitance netween the metal plates is *C*=*e*_{o}*A*/*d*
becomes very small when v is very large, where *d* is the distance
between the plates and *A* the surface area. Examples: *d*=0.001
metre, *A*=0.25 metre^{2}, *u*_{o}=4π
×10^{-7} newton/ampere^{2}, *e*_{o}=8.8542× 10^{-12}
farad/metre, π= 3.14159.

**References**

1. __Fields of Force: Development of a World View From Faraday To Einstein__;

by William Berkson;

from: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

2. __Experimental Evidence of Near-field Superluminally
Propagating Electromagnetic
Fields__; by: William D. Walker; at:
http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0009023.

October 25, 2003;

updated on 26-12-2007.

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