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                          Electromagnetic Field Propagation Velocity

Electric Wave Phase Velocity
Simultaneous Boolean Expressions With Signal Return Loops

In quantum mechanics when someone tries to measure the position of a particle like an electron, the velocity v of the particle is difficult to measure. The position and velocity of the particle seem not to be able to be measured at the same time according to modern physics theories. Similarly for the electromagnetic wave particle. When the position of an electromagnet wave or waves are observed, the velocity v of the wave is difficult to measure. Can detect electromagnetic wave amplitudes with an electronic oscilloscope after an electromagnetic wave has induced electrical current in a loop of wire. The induced electrical current would be proportional to magnetic field or wave intensities.
  Attempts have been made to measure the electromagnetic field velocity v. The electromagnetic field velocity v can be defined as the distance d an electromagnetic field travels in a given amount of time t. The electromagnetic field velocity v can be defined as:

  v=dt                                                    (1)    

The distance d can be the distance between a electromagnetic field transmitter antenna and a receiver antenna. Figure 1 shows the antennas separated by the distance d. This figure shows the experiment design for measuring the electromagnetic field velocity v. It shows the transmitter coil 2 with the electronic transmitter part 3 which supply the electric signal to the transmitter antenna 2, receiver antenna coil 4. The electromagnetic radio signal is transmitted to an electronic oscilloscope 5 via a coaxial electric transmission line 6.

    Electromagnetic Field Experiment Design

               Figure 1.

The electromagnetic field from the transmitter antenna 2 induces an electric signal voltage Vi which is observed with the oscilloscope 5. The transmitter circuit in transmitter device 3 gives a reference voltage Vr to the oscilloscope 5 second electrical input. The time difference t between the peaks of voltages Vr and Vi are used to calculate the electromagnetic field velocity v. Figures 2a and 2b shows some sketches of the voltages Vr and Vi of a few observations.

  Vr and Vi for d1=    metre      Vr and Vi for d2= metre

            Figure 2a.                                Figure 2b.

Figure 2a shows the voltages Vr and Vi and time t1=0 second when the peak of Vi occurs for when d=  metre=d1. Figure 2b shows the voltages Vr and Vi and time t2=0 second when the peak of Vi occurs for the further distance d=  metre=d2. The calculated velocity is then:

   v=(d2-d1)(t2-t1)                                    (2)

The figures show that the time difference t2-t1 is very small or not observable. The t2-t1 does not vary proportionally with change in distance d2-d1. When time difference t2-t1 is small with changes in d2-d1, the equation (2) of the velocity is undefined or very much fatser than the speed of light c. There can be some changes in t2-t1 for changes in d2-d1 because of the electrical capacitance change between the receiver antenna 4 and the grounding wire in the walls. If the position of the electromagnetic wave or wave is seen like d2, the velocity v of the wave is difficult to detect like in quantum mechanics. The velocity v becomes undefined when the position d2 of the wave is seen. This states that the propagation velocity v of light may be instantaneous if the position of the light waves can be seen. A universe that permits the speed of light v to be instantaneous or at the speed of light c=3.00108 metres per second requires a five dimensional space time. A five dimensional space-time simply means that there are parallel time lines. In one parallel time line, the velocity v of electromagnetic wave may be undefined, while in another parallel time line the velocity v of the speed of the electromagnetic wave from the same light source is at c a finite velocity. For example, if someone tries to tune a directional yagi radio antenna, the designer of the antenna can use the speed of light to design the
directional antenna. Meanwhile when observing the electrical signals from the oscilloscope, the velocity of the waves seemed undefined using equation (2). If the velocity v of the radio waves from the antenna is undefined, then how can the antenna be made directional using the speed of light c? The speed of light c can be used to calculate the distances between the antenna elements of a yagi directional antenna.

   Demonstration Video 1. Phase Angle Between Radio Signals While
   Varying Transmitter's Distance d:
   http:// /.WMV, file size:  kilobytes, (not available yet).

  Figure 3(a) shows Heinrich Hertz's experiment design for measuring the velocity of radio waves. It consists of transmitter antenna plates 2 and 3. Electric current is supplied to this antenna by an electrical transformer 4. A third metal plate 5 taps radio energy from antennas 2 and 3 for the antenna wire 6. Coil antennas 7 or 8 can be used to detect the radio wave energy from wire antenna 6 and and plates 2 and 3.

        Heinrich Hertz's Radio Wave Velocity Measuring Device
Measure Radio Wave Velocities
                                         Figure 3.

The electric current in the antenna wire 6 was assumed to have a finite propagation velocity v<c. The air radio waves from plates 2 and 3 was assumed to have a finite speed c=3.00108 metres per second or an instantaneous velocity. This instantaneous velocity of radio fields was called action-at-a-distance. If the radio waves in the air and the wire 6 have finite traveling velocities, constructing and destructive interference along the wire 6 length x could be detected. Figure 3(b) shows the wave interferences for radio air waves with a finite velocity c. The electric wave and air radio wave with a finite travelling speed would produce a standing wave. Where the waves produce destructive interference the radio wave amplitudes will cancel each other out and a minimum amount of radio wave energy could be detect by antenna 4 or 5 at location x3. Antennas 4 and 5 are coil antennas that have their lengths interrupted by spark gaps. Electric sparks between these spark gaps indicates the strength of the receive radio waves. If there was constructive interference of radio waves, the antenna 4 or 5 would detect a maximum radio wave energy at another location x2 as shown in figure 3(b). If the air radio waves velocity or electric voltage induction in antenna 4 or 5 was instantaneous, the amplitude of the radio waves from the wire antenna 6 would be steady along the wire 6 length x as shown in fiugre 3(c). Initially Heinrich Hertz obtained measurements that supported radio wave propagation that has an instantaneous velocity or action-at-a-distance. After more experiments, he found evidence of a finite radio air wave velocity. Action-at-a-distance is the effect that when alterating the orientation of a photon wave, the counter part photon at another location reacts by changing its wave orientation also. The experiment of figure 2 may be able to detect both types of velocities of radio air waves. The large superluminal velocity v>c may be allowed if electromagetic fields are four or five dimensional in nature. The electromagnetic field may have three dimensions x, y and z in a cartesian coordinate system of three dimensional space-time. The electromagnetic field may also have a four dimensional component t of time. Superstring theory has a 10 dimensional space-time model or mathematics. An electromagnetic field may perhaps be made of magnetic particles or photons. The electromagnetic particle or photon of the radio wave may perhaps flow from the north pole N of an electromagnet or coil, around the electromagnet and then into the south pole S of the same electromagnet. An electromagnet field particle or photon centre region may perhaps have a point P located in five dimensional space time designated by the symbol P(x,y,z,t,U). Variable U may represent a parallel three dimensional universe designation. U=1 universe is for our normal universe, and U=-1 universe may represent a parallel anti-universe, mirror universe, or antimatter universe. An anti-universe or mirror universe is the same as our own universe except that the electric charges are reversed; a negative electric charge behaves as a positive electric charge. A magnetic north pole N of a magnet in the mirror anti-universe behaves as a magnetic south pole S. This symbol P(x,y,z,t,U) may locate an electromagnetic particle in the atmosphere at some time t. For example, distances x=6000000 metres , y=6100000 metres and z=7000000 metres may be relative to the centre of the earth and axis of spin of earth. Time t=10-15 second for example may be relative to the beginning of year 2005. Electricity or an electron may not be just three dimensional, but may perhaps be six dimensional or capable in existing in a local six dimensional space also. It has the three x, y and z dimensions of the Cartsian coordinate system. It may have perhaps two time dimension; normal time t and hypertime or fast time. It may have or be in a sixth dimension or anti-matter dimension which may be a mirror image parallel universe. An electron in a parallel anti-matter universe would be called a positron that has a positive electric charge in the normal universe. A positron is an electron from the anti-matter universe if this is true. This hypertime dimension or local hyperspace enables electricity to escape the time dilation affect of Albert Eistein's relativity theory. The time dilation theory tells that the rate of time flow of a mass like an electron reduces as its speed increases relative to the speed of light c in a vacuum.
  The position and velocity v of an electromagnetic wave seem not to be able to be measured at the same time. When the position of the wave is seen, the velocity of the wave seemed undefined. There is a scientific idea or model that says that the behaviour of an electromagnetic photon and even subatomic particles like an electron depends partially on the measuring device used to measure the photon. If one tries to determine the position of the electromagnetic wave, one could not detect the velocity of the electromagnetic wave at the same time. In one universe U= 2 the laws of reality may be slightly different than the laws of another parallel universe U= 1 where the photon travels at the speed of light c if this is so.

Electric Wave Phase Velocity

Instantaneous Radio Wave Travelling Speed and Hyper Electromagnetics
When one tries to measure the travelling speed of an electrical sinewave in a coaxial transmision cable with an electronic oscilloscope the received and transmitted phase angle are in phase or the same. This would indicate that radio waves can travel at an instantaneous speed is possible that radio waves can travel in five dimensional speed-time as well in ordinary three dimensional time. This may be possible when that during the travel of the radio waves that many of its moments of time happens at the same time in parallel universes or five dimensional space-time. If the mass of the particle like the electron is small enough, with its travel speed fast enough and the observation time t3,Di is small than the events of the particle iwthin this smallm time period occur at the same time in parallel universes. This makes the electrical wave seem to travel instantaneouly in ordinary three dimensional space-time. See "A Hyper Electromagnetics Model For Quasi Quantum Computers".

Simultaneous Boolean Expresssions With Signal Return Loops

In digital electronics a binary 1 can be representd by a large signal voltage V, while a binary 0 can be represented by a smaller electric voltage such as 0.1 volt. The following boolean expressions (z) have some signal feedback or return loops. The previous x values with subscript n become the output in subscript n+1. This equation has no solutions using conventional digital computers. The outputs in x3,n are mainly logical 1, but sometimes become logical binary bit 0. Boolean algebra expressions z:
  (x1,n v x2,n)v(x3,n v x3,n)=x2,n+1,
   x2,n v x4,n=x3,n+1,
 outputs: x3,n+1.                                    (z)

The last xi,100=xi,1 for i=2 to 4, and then the calculations are repeated. The n=1 to 100, i=1 to 4. The x1,n=1=V=10 volts at 0.1 watt, but the other xi,n start at bit 0. Local electromagnetic waves or fields may by four or five dimensional in nature. We can detect electromagnetic waves in local three dimensional space-time, but when the electromagnetic waves travel in a local four or five dimensional space-time, it may not seem to travel at the speed of light c.
   The title
A Hyper Electromagnetics Model For Quasi Quantum Computers gives another electromagnetic model.
  The velocity of the electron or photon in vacuum space is ve=v in ve2=1/(eo uo). eo=1/(ve2 uo). Then the electrical capacitance netween the metal plates is C=eoA/d becomes very small when v is very large, where d is the distance between the plates and A the surface area. Examples: d=0.001 metre, A=0.25 metre2, uo=4π  10-7 newton/ampere2, eo=8.8542 10-12 farad/metre, π= 3.14159.

1. Fields of Force: Development of a World View From Faraday To Einstein;
   by William Berkson;
   from: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Experimental Evidence of Near-field Superluminally Propagating Electromagnetic
; by: William D. Walker; at:

October 25, 2003;
updated on 26-12-2007.

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